What are Fistula-in-ano? (भगन्दर )

Fistula-in-ano is an abnormal tunnel-like tract that forms between the inside of the anus or rectum and the skin around the anus. While fistula can occur in various parts of the body, anal and rectal fistulas are relatively common and can cause discomfort and complications. It typically results from an infection near the anus, such as an abscess. It typically develops as a result of an infection in an anal gland, which then progresses to create a passage through which pus and other fluids can drain. Anal fistulas can cause discomfort, pain, and various complications.

Types of Anal Fistula (भगन्दर के प्रकार)

  • Intersphincteric Fistula: This type of fistula lies between the internal and external anal sphincter muscles. It is one of the least complex types and usually causes mild symptoms.

  • Trans-sphincteric Fistula: This fistula starts in the anal canal, extends through the external sphincter, and opens in the skin near the anus. It’s associated with more significant discomfort and may have multiple openings.

  • Supra-sphincteric Fistula: This fistula originates high in the anal canal, extends above the external sphincter, and opens in the skin near the anus. It’s a more complex type and can cause increased pain and complications.

  • Extrasphincteric Fistula: This rare type of fistula involves an abnormal passage that extends beyond the sphincter muscles and may connect to other structures, such as the vagina or perineum.

  • Horseshoe Fistula: A horseshoe fistula goes around the rectum and connects with openings on both sides of the anus. It can be particularly challenging to treat due to its complex anatomy.

Appearance of Anal Fistula (भगन्दर की दिखावट)

An anal fistula typically starts with a small opening or hole near the anus. This opening might be barely noticeable and can appear as a small red bump or a tiny sore. One of the key signs is the presence of pus or discharge coming from the opening. This discharge can be yellowish or whitish in colour and might have a foul odour. The area around the opening might be red, irritated, and slightly swollen. In some cases, there might be more than one opening or hole associated with the fistula. These openings could be in the nearby skin or even in the buttocks area.

Medical professionals might use specialised techniques to visualise the fistula, such as inserting a thin probe into the opening to determine the direction and length of the tunnel.

Causes of Anal Fistula (भगन्दर के कारण)

It can occur due to an injury, infection, or inflammation that causes a tunnel-like channel to develop. Fistulas in anus can be caused by various factors, including,

  • Perianal Abscess: The most common cause of an anal fistula is a perianal abscess. This is an infection that forms in the anal glands, which are located around the anus. If the abscess isn’t properly treated, it can lead to the formation of a fistula.

  • Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: Conditions like Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, which are types of inflammatory bowel diseases, can increase the risk of developing anal fistulas. These diseases cause inflammation in the digestive tract, which can affect the anal area.

  • Infections: Infections in the anal region, such as sexually transmitted infections or other bacterial infections, can lead to the formation of a fistula if left untreated.

  • Trauma or Injury in anal region: Any trauma, injury, or surgery in the anal area can disrupt the normal tissue and create a pathway for a fistula to develop.

  • Chronic Constipation: Chronic constipation can cause excessive strain during bowel movements, leading to tears in the lining of the anus and potential fistula development.

Symptoms of Anal Fistula (भगन्दर के जोखिम और जटिलताएँ)

The symptoms of anal and rectal fistulas can vary depending on their complexity, and underlying cause. Common symptoms include,

  • Persistent pain and discomfort around the anus
  • Swelling and redness near the anus
  • Pus or bloody discharge from an opening near the anus
  • Itching and irritation
  • Recurrent abscesses
  • Fever and chills in cases of infection

Complications related to Anal Fistula (भगन्दर से संबंधित जटिलताएँ)

Anal fistula can lead to various complications if left untreated. Some common complications due to anal fistula includes,

  • Recurrent Infections: Fistulas often become sites of repeated infections, leading to ongoing discomfort, pain, and drainage.

  • Abscess Formation: Fistulas can be a result of untreated perianal abscesses, which can be painful and require medical attention.

  • Fistula Expansion: Left untreated, fistulas can grow longer and more complex, making them more challenging to treat.

  • Anal Pain and Discomfort: Ongoing pain and discomfort in the anal area are common complications, especially during bowel movements or prolonged sitting.

  • Anal Bleeding: Fistulas might cause bleeding, especially during bowel movements, due to irritation of the affected tissue.

  • Skin Irritation and Inflammation: The constant drainage of pus and discharge can cause irritation and inflammation of the surrounding skin.

  • Faecal Incontinence: In some cases, especially if the fistula damages anal sphincter muscles, there can be difficulty controlling bowel movements, leading to leakage.

  • Fistula extension: If the anal fistula isn’t properly treated or managed, then it can progress. This progression can involve the tunnel becoming longer, branching out into multiple paths, or affecting deeper tissues leading to many other complications.

  • Cancer: Chronic inflammation is a known risk factor for the development of cancer. Chronic inflammation and irritation caused by an anal fistula can also increase the risk of certain types of cancer. The constant irritation and inflammation can cause changes in the cells of the affected area, potentially increasing the risk of cancerous changes.

It’s important to seek medical attention if you suspect you have an anal fistula or if you are experiencing symptoms such as pain, swelling, drainage, or discomfort in the anal area.

Prevention and Treatment of Anal Fistula (भगंदर का ईलाज)

If you are also seeking a natural and holistic solution for the discomfort and challenges caused by fistulas in anal region, Then look no further –The Piles Care Centre and Hospital in Jalandhar offers a nurturing and effective approach to help you find relief and restore your well-being.

At the state-of-the-art Treatment Centre, The Piles Care Centre and Hospital understand the physical and emotional toll that anal fistulas can take and our approach focuses on holistic healing, addressing the root causes of the condition to provide you with not just temporary relief, but long-lasting wellness that empowers you to thrive.

What They Say


Amarnath Kumar Bihar

In 2020, an operation was done for Fistula in Bihar, but nothing was done. Ab Piles Care Centre, Jalandhar se treatment Karwayea hai.

Naresh Kumar Bhogpur, Jalandhar

I live in Bhogpur, Jalandhar. I treated for Fistula from Piles Care Centre Jalandhar in January 2022..

Pooja Sondhi Kartarpur

Came from Rishi Nagar, Kartarpur for treatment of Fistula. Already underwent 2 treatment procedure from private hospital in Jalandhar.